"The labyrinthine method of choosing a doge involved staggered exercises in voting and sortition--choosing men by lot was just one of many ways Venice resembled Athens in its choice of officers. The process had ten steps:
'From the Larger Council, thirty men were chosen by lot;
then nine were chosen by lot from the thirty;
then the nine voted for forty;
then twelve were chosen by lot from the forty;
then the twelve voted for twenty-five;
then nine were chosen by lot from the twenty-five;
then the nine voted for forty-five:
then eleven were chosen by lot from the forty-five;
then the eleven voted for forty-one;
then the forty-one elected a new doge.'"
Frederick C. Lane's Venice: A Maritime Republic, quoted in Garry Wills' Venice: Lion City.